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Documents  85A20 | enregistrements trouvés : 4

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For a wide range of values of the incoming solar radiation, the Earth features at least two attracting states, which correspond to competing climates. The warm climate is analogous to the present one, the snowball climate features global glaciation and conditions that can hardly support life forms. Paleoclimatic evidences suggest that in past our planet flipped between these two states. The main physical mechanism responsible for such instability is the ice-albedo feedback. In a previous work, we defined the Melancholia states that sit between the two climates. Such states are embedded in the boundaries between the two basins of attraction and feature extensive glaciation down to relatively low latitudes. Here, we explore the global stability properties of the system by introducing random perturbations as modulations to the intensity of the incoming solar radiation. We observe noise-induced transitions between the competing basins of attractions. In the weak noise limit, large deviation laws define the invariant measure and the statistics of escape times. By empirically constructing the instantons, we show that the Melancholia states are the gateways for the noise-induced transitions. In the region of multistability, in the zero-noise limit, the measure is supported only on one of the competing attractors. For low (high) values of the solar irradiance, the limit measure is the snowball (warm) climate. The changeover between the two regimes corresponds to a first order phase transition in the system. The framework we propose seems of general relevance for the study of complex multistable systems. At this regard, we relate our results to the debate around the prominence of contigency vs. convergence in biological evolution. Finally, we propose a new method for constructing Melancholia states from direct numerical simulations, thus bypassing the need to use the edge-tracking algorithm. For a wide range of values of the incoming solar radiation, the Earth features at least two attracting states, which correspond to competing climates. The warm climate is analogous to the present one, the snowball climate features global glaciation and conditions that can hardly support life forms. Paleoclimatic evidences suggest that in past our planet flipped between these two states. The main physical mechanism responsible for such i...

82C26 ; 60Gxx ; 37D45 ; 85A20 ; 76E20

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- 813 p.
ISBN 978-2-86883-663-2

Localisation : Oeuvres complètes RdC (LION);Réserve

oeuvres complètes # Lions # 20ème siècle # analyse numérique # calcul scientifique # application # équation de Navier-Stokes # équation KdV # fluide de Birgham # atmosphère # théorie des échelles # système hyperbolique # élasticité # météorologie # méthode des éléments finis # décomposition de domaine

01A75 ; 01A60 ; 65N55 ; 93C20 ; 93B05 ; 76D05 ; 85A20 ; 74K25 ; 86A10 ; 65N30

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ISBN 978-87-7304-185-7

Matematisk-fysiske meddeleleser

Localisation : Ouvrage RdC (W)

astronomie # atmosphere

85A20

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- 194 p.

Cahiers scientifiques , 0012

Localisation : Ouvrage RdC (WAVR)

approximation successive # densité # figure planétaire # géodésie # pesanteur # procédé uniforme # rotation # équilibre relatif

85A05 ; 85A20

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