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Documents  Delarue, François | enregistrements trouvés : 38

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Research talks;Partial Differential Equations;Probability and Statistics

We are interested in parabolic differential equations $(\partial_t-a\partial_x^2)u=f$ with a very irregular forcing $f$ and only mildly regular coefficients $a$. This is motivated by stochastic differential equations, where $f$ is random, and quasilinear equations, where $a$ is a (nonlinear) function of $u$.
Below a certain threshold for the regularity of $f$ and $a$ (on the Hölder scale), giving even a sense to this equation requires a renormalization. In the framework of the above setting, we present recent ideas from the area of stochastic differential equations (Lyons' rough path, Gubinelli's controlled rough paths, Hairer's regularity structures) that allow to build a solution theory. We make a connection with Safonov's approach to Schauder theory.
This is based on joint work with H. Weber, J. Sauer, and S. Smith.
We are interested in parabolic differential equations $(\partial_t-a\partial_x^2)u=f$ with a very irregular forcing $f$ and only mildly regular coefficients $a$. This is motivated by stochastic differential equations, where $f$ is random, and quasilinear equations, where $a$ is a (nonlinear) function of $u$.
Below a certain threshold for the regularity of $f$ and $a$ (on the Hölder scale), giving even a sense to this equation requires a ...

60H15 ; 35B65

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Research talks;Partial Differential Equations;Mathematics in Science and Technology

Inspired by modeling in neurosciences, we here discuss the well-posedness of a networked integrate-and-fire model describing an infinite population of companies which interact with one another through their common statistical distribution. The interaction is of the self-excitatory type as, at any time, the debt of a company increases when some of the others default: precisely, the loss it receives is proportional to the instantaneous proportion of companies that default at the same time. From a mathematical point of view, the coefficient of proportionality, denoted by a, is of great importance as the resulting system is known to blow-up when a takes large values, a blow-up meaning that a macroscopic proportion of companies may default at the same time. In the current talk, we focus on the complementary regime and prove that existence and uniqueness hold in arbitrary time without any blow-up when the excitatory parameter is small enough. Inspired by modeling in neurosciences, we here discuss the well-posedness of a networked integrate-and-fire model describing an infinite population of companies which interact with one another through their common statistical distribution. The interaction is of the self-excitatory type as, at any time, the debt of a company increases when some of the others default: precisely, the loss it receives is proportional to the instantaneous proportion ...

35K60 ; 82C31 ; 92B20

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Research schools;Computer Science;Control Theory and Optimization;Partial Differential Equations;Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Recently, an important research activity on mean field games (MFGs for short) has been initiated by the pioneering works of Lasry and Lions: it aims at studying the asymptotic behavior of stochastic differential games (Nash equilibria) as the number $n$ of agents tends to infinity. The field is now rapidly growing in several directions, including stochastic optimal control, analysis of PDEs, calculus of variations, numerical analysis and computing, and the potential applications to economics and social sciences are numerous.
In the limit when $n \to +\infty$, a given agent feels the presence of the others through the statistical distribution of the states. Assuming that the perturbations of a single agent's strategy does not influence the statistical states distribution, the latter acts as a parameter in the control problem to be solved by each agent. When the dynamics of the agents are independent stochastic processes, MFGs naturally lead to a coupled system of two partial differential equations (PDEs for short), a forward Fokker-Planck equation and a backward Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation.
The latter system of PDEs has closed form solutions in very few cases only. Therefore, numerical simulation are crucial in order to address applications. The present mini-course will be devoted to numerical methods that can be used to approximate the systems of PDEs.
The numerical schemes that will be presented rely basically on monotone approximations of the Hamiltonian and on a suitable weak formulation of the Fokker-Planck equation.
These schemes have several important features:

- The discrete problem has the same structure as the continous one, so existence, energy estimates, and possibly uniqueness can be obtained with the same kind of arguments

- Monotonicity guarantees the stability of the scheme: it is robust in the deterministic limit

- convergence to classical or weak solutions can be proved

Finally, there are particular cases named variational MFGS in which the system of PDEs can be seen as the optimality conditions of some optimal control problem driven by a PDE. In such cases, augmented Lagrangian methods can be used for solving the discrete nonlinear system. The mini-course will be orgamized as follows

1. Introduction to the system of PDEs and its interpretation. Uniqueness of classical solutions.

2. Monotone finite difference schemes

3. Examples of applications

4. Variational MFG and related algorithms for solving the discrete system of nonlinear equations
Recently, an important research activity on mean field games (MFGs for short) has been initiated by the pioneering works of Lasry and Lions: it aims at studying the asymptotic behavior of stochastic differential games (Nash equilibria) as the number $n$ of agents tends to infinity. The field is now rapidly growing in several directions, including stochastic optimal control, analysis of PDEs, calculus of variations, numerical analysis and ...

49K20 ; 49N70 ; 35F21 ; 35K40 ; 35K55 ; 35Q84 ; 65K10 ; 65M06 ; 65M12 ; 91A23 ; 91A15

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Research talks;Partial Differential Equations;Probability and Statistics

We revise recent contributions to 2D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with and without noise, but always in the case of stochastic solutions. The role of white noise initial conditions will be stressed and related to some questions about turbulence.

35Q30 ; 35Q31 ; 60H15 ; 60H40

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Research talks;Partial Differential Equations;Probability and Statistics

Consider the following stochastic heat equation,
\[
\frac{\partial u_t(x)}{\partial t}=-\nu(-\Delta)^{\alpha/2} u_t(x)+\sigma(u_t(x))\dot{F}(t,\,x), \quad t>0, \; x \in \mathbb{R}^d.
\]
Here $-\nu(-\Delta)^{\alpha/2}$ is the fractional Laplacian with $\nu>0$ and $\alpha \in (0,2]$, $\sigma: \mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a globally Lipschitz function, and $\dot{F}(t,\,x)$ is a Gaussian noise which is white in time and colored in space. Under some suitable conditions, we will explore the effect of the initial data on the spatial asymptotic properties of the solution. We also prove a strong comparison principle thus filling an important gap in the literature.
Joint work with Mohammud Foondun (University of Strathclyde).
Consider the following stochastic heat equation,
\[
\frac{\partial u_t(x)}{\partial t}=-\nu(-\Delta)^{\alpha/2} u_t(x)+\sigma(u_t(x))\dot{F}(t,\,x), \quad t>0, \; x \in \mathbb{R}^d.
\]
Here $-\nu(-\Delta)^{\alpha/2}$ is the fractional Laplacian with $\nu>0$ and $\alpha \in (0,2]$, $\sigma: \mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a globally Lipschitz function, and $\dot{F}(t,\,x)$ is a Gaussian noise which is white in time and colored in space. ...

60H15 ; 60J55 ; 35R60

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Research talks;Partial Differential Equations;Probability and Statistics

I will discuss integration by parts formulae on the law of the Bessel bridge of dimension less than $3$ and show how this allows to conjecture the form of an associated SPDE. The most relevant case is the dimension equal to $1$, which is expected to be the scaling limit of critical wetting models.

60H15 ; 60J55

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Research talks;Partial Differential Equations;Mathematical Physics;Probability and Statistics

I will present some recent results on global solutions to singular SPDEs on $\mathbb{R}^d$ with cubic nonlinearities and additive white noise perturbation, both in the elliptic setting in dimensions $d=4,5$ and in the parabolic setting for $d=2,3$. A motivation for considering these equations is the construction of scalar interacting Euclidean quantum field theories. The parabolic equations are related to the $\Phi^4_d$ Euclidean quantum field theory via Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization, while the elliptic equations are linked to the $\Phi^4_{d-2}$ Euclidean quantum field theory via the Parisi--Sourlas dimensional reduction mechanism. We prove existence for the elliptic equations and existence, uniqueness and coming down from infinity for the parabolic
equations. Joint work with Massimiliano Gubinelli.
I will present some recent results on global solutions to singular SPDEs on $\mathbb{R}^d$ with cubic nonlinearities and additive white noise perturbation, both in the elliptic setting in dimensions $d=4,5$ and in the parabolic setting for $d=2,3$. A motivation for considering these equations is the construction of scalar interacting Euclidean quantum field theories. The parabolic equations are related to the $\Phi^4_d$ Euclidean quantum field ...

60H15 ; 81T08 ; 81S20 ; 35Q40 ; 35J61

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Research schools;Control Theory and Optimization;Probability and Statistics

We introduce a new strategy for the solution of Mean Field Games in the presence of major and minor players. This approach is based on a formulation of the fixed point step in spaces of controls. We use it to highlight the differences between open and closed loop problems. We illustrate the implementation of this approach for linear quadratic and finite state space games, and we provide numerical results motivated by applications in biology and cyber-security. We introduce a new strategy for the solution of Mean Field Games in the presence of major and minor players. This approach is based on a formulation of the fixed point step in spaces of controls. We use it to highlight the differences between open and closed loop problems. We illustrate the implementation of this approach for linear quadratic and finite state space games, and we provide numerical results motivated by applications in biology and ...

93E20 ; 60H10 ; 60K35 ; 49K45

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Research schools;Mathematics in Science and Technology;Probability and Statistics

Backward stochastic differential equations have been a very successful and active tool for stochastic finance and insurance for some decades. More generally they serve as a central method in applications of control theory in many areas. We introduce BSDE by looking at a simple utility optimization problem in financial stochastics. We shall derive an important class of BSDE by applying the martingale optimality principle to solve an optimal investment problem for a financial agent whose income is partly affected by market external risk. We then present the basics of existence and uniqueness theory for solutions to BSDE the coefficients of which satisfy global Lipschitz conditions. Backward stochastic differential equations have been a very successful and active tool for stochastic finance and insurance for some decades. More generally they serve as a central method in applications of control theory in many areas. We introduce BSDE by looking at a simple utility optimization problem in financial stochastics. We shall derive an important class of BSDE by applying the martingale optimality principle to solve an optimal ...

91B24 ; 60H15 ; 60H10 ; 91G80

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Research schools;Control Theory and Optimization;Mathematics in Science and Technology

We consider competitive capacity investment for a duopoly of two distinct producers. The producers are exposed to stochastically fluctuating costs and interact through aggregate supply. Capacity expansion is irreversible and modeled in terms of timing strategies characterized through threshold rules. Because the impact of changing costs on the producers is asymmetric, we are led to a nonzero-sum timing game describing the transitions among the discrete investment stages. Working in a continuous-time diffusion framework, we characterize and analyze the resulting Nash equilibrium and game values. Our analysis quantifies the dynamic competition effects and yields insight into dynamic preemption and over-investment in a general asymmetric setting. A case-study considering the impact of fluctuating emission costs on power producers investing in nuclear and coal-fired plants is also presented. We consider competitive capacity investment for a duopoly of two distinct producers. The producers are exposed to stochastically fluctuating costs and interact through aggregate supply. Capacity expansion is irreversible and modeled in terms of timing strategies characterized through threshold rules. Because the impact of changing costs on the producers is asymmetric, we are led to a nonzero-sum timing game describing the transitions among the ...

93E20 ; 91B38 ; 91A80

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Research schools;Dynamical Systems and Ordinary Differential Equations;Probability and Statistics;Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

The talk will have two parts: In the first part, I will go over some of the basic feature of cubature methods for approximating solutions of classical SDEs and how they can be adapted to solve Backward SDEs. In the second part, I will introduce some recent results on the use of cubature method for approximating solutions of McKean-Vlasov SDEs.

65C30 ; 60H10 ; 34F05 ; 60H35 ; 91G60

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Research schools;Probability and Statistics;Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

65C30 ; 60K35 ; 65C35 ; 60H10

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Research schools;Partial Differential Equations;Mathematics in Science and Technology

We propose a mean field kinetic model for systems of rational agents interacting in a game theoretical framework. This model is inspired from non-cooperative anonymous games with a continuum of players and Mean-Field Games. The large time behavior of the system is given by a macroscopic closure with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. Applications of the presented theory to social and economical models will be given. We propose a mean field kinetic model for systems of rational agents interacting in a game theoretical framework. This model is inspired from non-cooperative anonymous games with a continuum of players and Mean-Field Games. The large time behavior of the system is given by a macroscopic closure with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. Applications of the presented theory to social and economical models will be ...

91B80 ; 35Q82 ; 35Q91

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Research schools;Partial Differential Equations;Probability and Statistics

Branching methods have recently been developed to solve some PDEs. Starting from Mckean formulation, we give the initial branching method to solve the KPP equation. We then give a formulation to solve non linear equation with a non linearity polynomial in the value function u. The methodology is extended for general non linearities in the value function u. Then we develop the methodology to solve non linear equation with non linearities polynomial in u and Du with convergence results. At last we give some numerical schemes to solve the semi-linear case and even the full non linear case but currently without convergence results. Branching methods have recently been developed to solve some PDEs. Starting from Mckean formulation, we give the initial branching method to solve the KPP equation. We then give a formulation to solve non linear equation with a non linearity polynomial in the value function u. The methodology is extended for general non linearities in the value function u. Then we develop the methodology to solve non linear equation with non linearities ...

60H15 ; 35R60 ; 60J80

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Research schools;Probability and Statistics;Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

We first introduce the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We then consider the Random Walk Metropolis algorithm on $R^n$ with Gaussian proposals, and when the target probability measure is the $n$-fold product of a one dimensional law. It is well-known that, in the limit $n$ tends to infinity, starting at equilibrium and for an appropriate scaling of the variance and of the timescale as a function of the dimension $n$, a diffusive limit is obtained for each component of the Markov chain. We generalize this result when the initial distribution is not the target probability measure. The obtained diffusive limit is the solution to a stochastic differential equation nonlinear in the sense of McKean. We prove convergence to equilibrium for this equation. We discuss practical counterparts in order to optimize the variance of the proposal distribution to accelerate convergence to equilibrium. Our analysis confirms the interest of the constant acceptance rate strategy (with acceptance rate between 1/4 and 1/3). We first introduce the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We then consider the Random Walk Metropolis algorithm on $R^n$ with Gaussian proposals, and when the target probability measure is the $n$-fold product of a one dimensional law. It is well-known that, in the limit $n$ tends to infinity, starting at equilibrium and for an appropriate scaling of the variance and of the timescale as a function of the dimension $n$, a diffusive limit is obtained ...

60J22 ; 60J10 ; 60G50 ; 60F17 ; 60J60 ; 60G09 ; 65C40 ; 65C05

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Research schools;Computer Science;Probability and Statistics;Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Optimal vector quantization has been originally introduced in Signal processing as a discretization method of random signals, leading to an optimal trade-off between the speed of transmission and the quality of the transmitted signal. In machine learning, similar methods applied to a dataset are the historical core of unsupervised classification methods known as “clustering”. In both case it appears as an optimal way to produce a set of weighted prototypes (or codebook) which makes up a kind of skeleton of a dataset, a signal and more generally, from a mathematical point of view, of a probability distribution.
Quantization has encountered in recent years a renewed interest in various application fields like automatic classification, learning algorithms, optimal stopping and stochastic control, Backward SDEs and more generally numerical probability. In all these various applications, practical implementation of such clustering/quantization methods more or less rely on two procedures (and their countless variants): the Competitive Learning Vector Quantization $(CLV Q)$ which appears as a stochastic gradient descent derived from the so-called distortion potential and the (randomized) Lloyd's procedure (also known as k- means algorithm, nu ees dynamiques) which is but a fixed point search procedure. Batch version of those procedures can also be implemented when dealing with a dataset (or more generally a discrete distribution).
In a more formal form, if is probability distribution on an Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^d$, the optimal quantization problem at level $N$ boils down to exhibiting an $N$-tuple $(x_{1}^{*}, . . . , x_{N}^{*})$, solution to

argmin$_{(x1,\dotsb,x_N)\epsilon(\mathbb{R}^d)^N} \int_{\mathbb{R}^d 1\le i\le N} \min |x_i-\xi|^2 \mu(d\xi)$

and its distribution i.e. the weights $(\mu(C(x_{i}^{*}))_{1\le i\le N}$ where $(C(x_{i}^{*})$ is a (Borel) partition of $\mathbb{R}^d$ satisfying

$C(x_{i}^{*})\subset \lbrace\xi\epsilon\mathbb{R}^d :|x_{i}^{*} -\xi|\le_{1\le j\le N} \min |x_{j}^{*}-\xi|\rbrace$.

To produce an unsupervised classification (or clustering) of a (large) dataset $(\xi_k)_{1\le k\le n}$, one considers its empirical measure

$\mu=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^{n}\delta_{\xi k}$

whereas in numerical probability $\mu = \mathcal{L}(X)$ where $X$ is an $\mathbb{R}^d$-valued simulatable random vector. In both situations, $CLV Q$ and Lloyd's procedures rely on massive sampling of the distribution $\mu$.
As for clustering, the classification into $N$ clusters is produced by the partition of the dataset induced by the Voronoi cells $C(x_{i}^{*}), i = 1, \dotsb, N$ of the optimal quantizer.
In this second case, which is of interest for solving non linear problems like Optimal stopping problems (variational inequalities in terms of PDEs) or Stochastic control problems (HJB equations) in medium dimensions, the idea is to produce a quantization tree optimally fitting the dynamics of (a time discretization) of the underlying structure process.
We will explore (briefly) this vast panorama with a focus on the algorithmic aspects where few theoretical results coexist with many heuristics in a burgeoning literature. We will present few simulations in two dimensions.
Optimal vector quantization has been originally introduced in Signal processing as a discretization method of random signals, leading to an optimal trade-off between the speed of transmission and the quality of the transmitted signal. In machine learning, similar methods applied to a dataset are the historical core of unsupervised classification methods known as “clustering”. In both case it appears as an optimal way to produce a set ...

62L20 ; 93E25 ; 94A12 ; 91G60 ; 65C05

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Research schools;Computer Science

In this talk I will present some recent developments in model-free reinforcement learning applied to large state spaces, with an emphasis on deep learning and its role in estimating action-value functions. The talk will cover a variety of model-free algorithms, including variations on Q-Learning, and some of the main techniques that make the approach practical. I will illustrate the usefulness of these methods with examples drawn from the Arcade Learning Environment, the popular set of Atari 2600 benchmark domains. In this talk I will present some recent developments in model-free reinforcement learning applied to large state spaces, with an emphasis on deep learning and its role in estimating action-value functions. The talk will cover a variety of model-free algorithms, including variations on Q-Learning, and some of the main techniques that make the approach practical. I will illustrate the usefulness of these methods with examples drawn from the Arcade ...

68Q32 ; 91A25 ; 68T05

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Research schools;Partial Differential Equations;Probability and Statistics;Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

We will first recall, for a general audience, the use of Monte Carlo and Multi-level Monte Carlo methods in the context of Uncertainty Quantification. Then we will discuss the recently developed Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) Methods for (i) It Stochastic Differential Equations, (ii) Stochastic Reaction Networks modeled by Pure Jump Markov Processes and (iii) Partial Differential Equations with random inputs. In this context, the notion of adaptivity includes several aspects such as mesh refinements based on either a priori or a posteriori error estimates, the local choice of different time stepping methods and the selection of the total number of levels and the number of samples at different levels. Our Adaptive MLMC estimator uses a hierarchy of adaptively refined, non-uniform time discretizations, and, as such, it may be considered a generalization of the uniform discretization MLMC method introduced independently by M. Giles and S. Heinrich. In particular, we show that our adaptive MLMC algorithms are asymptotically accurate and have the correct complexity with an improved control of the multiplicative constant factor in the asymptotic analysis. In this context, we developed novel techniques for estimation of parameters needed in our MLMC algorithms, such as the variance of the difference between consecutive approximations. These techniques take particular care of the deepest levels, where for efficiency reasons only few realizations are available to produce essential estimates. Moreover, we show the asymptotic normality of the statistical error in the MLMC estimator, justifying in this way our error estimate that allows prescribing both the required accuracy and confidence level in the final result. We present several examples to illustrate the above results and the corresponding computational savings. We will first recall, for a general audience, the use of Monte Carlo and Multi-level Monte Carlo methods in the context of Uncertainty Quantification. Then we will discuss the recently developed Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) Methods for (i) It Stochastic Differential Equations, (ii) Stochastic Reaction Networks modeled by Pure Jump Markov Processes and (iii) Partial Differential Equations with random inputs. In this context, the notion ...

65C30 ; 65C05 ; 60H15 ; 60H35 ; 35R60

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Research schools;Partial Differential Equations;Probability and Statistics;Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

We describe and analyze the Multi-Index Monte Carlo (MIMC) and the Multi-Index Stochastic Collocation (MISC) method for computing statistics of the solution of a PDE with random data. MIMC is both a stochastic version of the combination technique introduced by Zenger, Griebel and collaborators and an extension of the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method first described by Heinrich and Giles. Instead of using first-order differences as in MLMC, MIMC uses mixed differences to reduce the variance of the hierarchical differences dramatically. These mixed differences yield new and improved complexity results, which are natural generalizations of Giles's MLMC analysis, and which increase the domain of problem parameters for which we achieve the optimal convergence. On the same vein, MISC is a deterministic combination technique based on mixed differences of spatial approximations and quadratures over the space of random data. Provided enough mixed regularity, MISC can achieve better complexity than MIMC. Moreover, we show that, in the optimal case, the convergence rate of MISC is only dictated by the convergence of the deterministic solver applied to a one-dimensional spatial problem. We propose optimization procedures to select the most effective mixed differences to include in MIMC and MISC. Such optimization is a crucial step that allows us to make MIMC and MISC computationally efficient. We show the effectiveness of MIMC and MISC in some computational tests using the mimclib open source library, including PDEs with random coefficients and Stochastic Interacting Particle Systems. Finally, we will briefly discuss the use of Markovian projection for the approximation of prices in the context of American basket options. We describe and analyze the Multi-Index Monte Carlo (MIMC) and the Multi-Index Stochastic Collocation (MISC) method for computing statistics of the solution of a PDE with random data. MIMC is both a stochastic version of the combination technique introduced by Zenger, Griebel and collaborators and an extension of the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method first described by Heinrich and Giles. Instead of using first-order differences as in MLMC, ...

65C30 ; 65C05 ; 60H15 ; 60H35 ; 35R60 ; 65M70

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Research schools;Computer Science;Probability and Statistics

In this talk, I will introduce the classical theory of multi-armed bandits, a field at the junction of statistics, optimization, game theory and machine learning, discuss the possible applications, and highlights the new perspectives and open questions that they propose We consider competitive capacity investment for a duopoly of two distinct producers. The producers are exposed to stochastically fluctuating costs and interact through aggregate supply. Capacity expansion is irreversible and modeled in terms of timing strategies characterized through threshold rules. Because the impact of changing costs on the producers is asymmetric, we are led to a nonzero-sum timing game describing the transitions among the discrete investment stages. Working in a continuous-time diffusion framework, we characterize and analyze the resulting Nash equilibrium and game values. Our analysis quantifies the dynamic competition effects and yields insight into dynamic preemption and over-investment in a general asymmetric setting. A case-study considering the impact of fluctuating emission costs on power producers investing in nuclear and coal-fired plants is also presented. In this talk, I will introduce the classical theory of multi-armed bandits, a field at the junction of statistics, optimization, game theory and machine learning, discuss the possible applications, and highlights the new perspectives and open questions that they propose We consider competitive capacity investment for a duopoly of two distinct producers. The producers are exposed to stochastically fluctuating costs and interact through aggregate ...

62L05 ; 68T05 ; 91A26 ; 91A80 ; 91B26

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