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# Documents  Kohel, David | enregistrements trouvés : 28

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## Formulas for the limiting distribution of traces of Frobenius Lachaud, Gilles | H

Post-edited

Research talks;Lie Theory and Generalizations;Number Theory

We discuss the distribution of the trace of a random matrix in the compact Lie group USp2g, with the normalized Haar measure. According to the generalized Sato-Tate conjecture, if A is an abelian variety of dimension g defined over the rationals, the sequence of traces of Frobenius in the successive reductions of A modulo primes appears to be equidistributed with respect to this distribution. If g = 2, we provide expressions for the characteristic function, the density, and the repartition function of this distribution in terms of higher transcendental functions, namely Legendre and Meijer functions. We discuss the distribution of the trace of a random matrix in the compact Lie group USp2g, with the normalized Haar measure. According to the generalized Sato-Tate conjecture, if A is an abelian variety of dimension g defined over the rationals, the sequence of traces of Frobenius in the successive reductions of A modulo primes appears to be equidistributed with respect to this distribution. If g = 2, we provide expressions for the cha...

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## Algebraic cycles on varieties over finite fields Pirutka, Alena | H

Post-edited

Research talks;Algebraic and Complex Geometry

Let $X$ be a projective variety over a field $k$. Chow groups are defined as the quotient of a free group generated by irreducible subvarieties (of fixed dimension) by some equivalence relation (called rational equivalence). These groups carry many information on $X$ but are in general very difficult to study. On the other hand, one can associate to $X$ several cohomology groups which are "linear" objects and hence are rather simple to understand. One then construct maps called "cycle class maps" from Chow groups to several cohomological theories.
In this talk, we focus on the case of a variety $X$ over a finite field. In this case, Tate conjecture claims the surjectivity of the cycle class map with rational coefficients; this conjecture is still widely open. In case of integral coefficients, we speak about the integral version of the conjecture and we know several counterexamples for the surjectivity. In this talk, we present a survey of some well-known results on this subject and discuss other properties of algebraic cycles which are either proved or expected to be true. We also discuss several involved methods.
Let $X$ be a projective variety over a field $k$. Chow groups are defined as the quotient of a free group generated by irreducible subvarieties (of fixed dimension) by some equivalence relation (called rational equivalence). These groups carry many information on $X$ but are in general very difficult to study. On the other hand, one can associate to $X$ several cohomology groups which are "linear" objects and hence are rather simple to ...

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## Arithmetic, geometry, cryptography and coding theory 2009.12th conference on arithmetic, geometry, cryptography and coding theoryMarseille # march 30-april 3, 2009Geocrypt conferencePointe-à-Pitre # april 27-may 1, 2009European science foundation exploratory workshop curves, coding theory, and cryptographyMarseille # march 25-29, 2009 Kohel, David ; Rolland, Robert | 2010

Congrès

- vii; 166 p.
ISBN 978-0-8218-4955-2

Contemporary mathematics , 0521

Localisation : Collection 1er étage

théorie des nombres # géométrie algébrique # géométrie algébrique arithmétique # géométrie diophantienne # courbe algébrique # cryptographie

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## Journée annuelle du 20 juin 2014:arithmétique et dynamique - Chaires Jean-Morlet 2014 Hasselblatt, Boris ; Kohel, David ; Shparlinski, Igor ; Pansu, P. | 2014

Congrès

- 62 p.
ISBN 978-2-85629-786-5

Localisation : Colloque 1er étage (PARI)

dynamique hyperbolique # théorie des nombres # cryptographie

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## Frobenius distributions: Lang-Trotter and Sato-Tate conjectures:Winter school on Frobenius distributions on curvesMarseille # February 17-21, 2014Workshop on Frobenius distributions on curvesMarseille # February 24-28, 2014 Kohel, David ; Shparlinski, Igor | 2016

Congrès

- viii; 238 p.
ISBN 978-1-4704-1947-9

Contemporary mathematics , 0663

Localisation : Collection 1er étage

distribution de Frobenius # conjecture de Sato-Tate # conjecture de Lang-Trotter

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## Arithmetic, geometry, cryptography and coding theory.15th international conference on arithmetic, geometry, cryptography and coding theoryMarseille # May 18-22, 2015 Bassa, Alp ; Couvreur, Alain ; Kohel, David | 2017

Congrès

- v; 199 p.
ISBN 978-1-4704-2810-5

Contemporary mathematics , 0686

Localisation : Collection 1er étage

arithmétique # géométrie # cryptographie # codage # variété abélienne

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## Computing the image of Galois representations attached to elliptic curves Sutherland, Andrew | H

Multi angle

Research talks;Number Theory

Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over a number field $K$. For each integer $n > 1$ the action of the absolute Galois group $G_K := Gal(\overline{K}/K)$ on the $n$-torsion subgroup $E [n]$ induces a Galois representation $\rho_{E,n}:G_K \rightarrow$ Aut$(E[n]) \backsimeq GL_2(\mathbb{Z} /n\mathbb{Z})$. The representations $\rho_{E,n}$ form a compatible system, and after taking inverse limits one obtains an adelic representation $\rho_E:G_K \rightarrow GL_2(\hat{\mathbb{Z}})$. If $E/K$ does not have $CM$, then Serre’s open image theorem implies that the image of $\rho_E$ has finite index in $GL_2(\hat{\mathbb{Z}})$; in particular, $\rho_{E,\ell}$ is surjective for all but finitely many primes $\ell$.
I will present an algorithm that, given an elliptic curve $E/K$ without $CM$, determines the image of $\rho_{E,\ell}$ in $GL_2(\mathbb{Z} /\ell\mathbb{Z})$ up to local conjugacy for every prime $\ell$ for which $\rho_{E,\ell}$ is non-surjective. Assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis, the algorithm runs in time that is polynomial in the bit-size of the coefficients of an integral Weierstrass model for $E$. I will then describe a probabilistic algorithm that uses this information to compute the index of $\rho_E$ in $GL_2(\hat{\mathbb{Z}})$.
Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over a number field $K$. For each integer $n > 1$ the action of the absolute Galois group $G_K := Gal(\overline{K}/K)$ on the $n$-torsion subgroup $E [n]$ induces a Galois representation $\rho_{E,n}:G_K \rightarrow$ Aut$(E[n]) \backsimeq GL_2(\mathbb{Z} /n\mathbb{Z})$. The representations $\rho_{E,n}$ form a compatible system, and after taking inverse limits one obtains an adelic representation $\rho_E:G_K \... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Generators for the group of modular units for$\Gamma^1(N)$over the rationals Streng, Marco | H Multi angle Research talks;Algebraic and Complex Geometry;Number Theory The modular curve$Y^1(N)$parametrises pairs$(E,P)$, where$E$is an elliptic curve and$P$is a point of order$N$on$E$, up to isomorphism. A unit on the affine curve$Y^1(N)$is a holomorphic function that is nowhere zero and I will mention some applications of the group of units in the talk. The main result is a way of generating generators (sic) of this group using a recurrence relation. The generators are essentially the defining equations of$Y^1(N)$for$n < (N + 3)/2$. This result proves a conjecture of Maarten Derickx and Mark van Hoeij. The modular curve$Y^1(N)$parametrises pairs$(E,P)$, where$E$is an elliptic curve and$P$is a point of order$N$on$E$, up to isomorphism. A unit on the affine curve$Y^1(N)$is a holomorphic function that is nowhere zero and I will mention some applications of the group of units in the talk. The main result is a way of generating generators (sic) of this group using a recurrence relation. The generators are essentially the defining ... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Algebraic curves with many rational points over non-prime finite fields Gekeler, Ernst-Ulrich | H Multi angle Research talks;Algebraic and Complex Geometry;Number Theory We construct curves over finite fields with properties similar to those of classical elliptic or Drinfeld modular curves (as far as elliptic points, cusps, ramification, ... are concerned), but whose coverings have Galois groups of type$\mathbf{GL}(r)$over finite rings$(r\ge 3)$instead of$\mathbf{GL}(2)$. In the case where the finite field is non-prime, there results an abundance of series or towers with a large ratio "number of rational points/genus". The construction relies on higher-rank Drinfeld modular varieties and the supersingular trick and uses mainly rigid- analytic techniques. We construct curves over finite fields with properties similar to those of classical elliptic or Drinfeld modular curves (as far as elliptic points, cusps, ramification, ... are concerned), but whose coverings have Galois groups of type$\mathbf{GL}(r)$over finite rings$(r\ge 3)$instead of$\mathbf{GL}(2)$. In the case where the finite field is non-prime, there results an abundance of series or towers with a large ratio "number of rational ... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Computing discrete logarithms in$GF(p^n)$: practical improvement of the individual logarithm step Guillevic, Aurore | H Multi angle Research talks;Computer Science;Number Theory This talk will focus on the last step of the number field sive algorithm used to compute discrete logarithms in finite fields. We consider here non-prime finite fields of very small extension degree:$1 \le n \le 6$. These cases are interesting in pairing-based cryptography: the pairing output is an element in such a finite field. The discrete logarithm in that finite field must be hard enough to prevent from attacks in a given time (e.g.$10$years). Within the CATREL project we aim to compute DL records in finite fields of moderate size (e.g. in$GF(p^n$) of global size from$600$to$800$bits) to estimate more tightly the hardness of DL in fields of cryptographic size ($2048$bits at the moment). The best algorithm known to compute discrete logarithms in large finite fields (with small$n$) is the number field sieve (NFS): (1) polynomial selection: select two distinct polynomials$f,g$defining two number fields, such that they share modulo$p$an irreducible degree$n$factor, and have additional properties to improve the next two steps. (2) sieving: sieve over elements that satisfy relations, to build the factor basis made of prime ideals of small norm. (3) linear algebra: compute the kernel of a large matrix computed the step before. Then the logarithm of each element in the factor basis is known. (4) individual logarithm: for a given element$s \in GF(p^n)$, decompose it over the factor basis to finally compute its discrete logarithm. The most time consuming steps are the second and third: sieving and linear algerbra. After the sieve and the linear algebra, the logarithms of the prime ideals of small norm are known. To finally compute the discrete logarithm of the given element$s$, we lift$s$in one of the number fields and factor it in prime ideals as with “small” elements in the sieve step. However here,$s$does not have a small norm (bounded by$B \ll Q$). Its norm is very large, in particular, larger than$Q$. The usual way is to test for many$s' = s \cdot g^e$with$g$the given generator of$GF(p^n)$until the norm of$s'$is smooth enough. The time spent to find a good$e$is asymptotically less than the sieving time. In practice, another modification of$s'$is computed to reduce its norm. In [?], the authors write$s' = a(x) / b(x)$with$a, b$of coefficients of size$\sim p^{1/2}$instead of$p$. With$n = 4$the norm of$s$is$O(p^{11/2})$. Their method compute$a,b$of norm$O(p^{7/2})$. One need to factor into small prime ideals two elements$a,b$instead of one$s'$. for our record computations of discrete logarithms in$\mathbb{F}_pn$with$2 \leqslant n \leqslant 6$, we improve the preparation of$s$, so that its norm in the number field is less than$Q$. This improves its smoothness property. Assume that we want to compute the discrete logarithm of$s$in the larger subgroup of prime order$\ell$of$GF(p^n)$, with$\ell|\Phi_np$. We decompose$s$in$\epsilon \cdot s'$with$\epsilon$in a subfield or in a subgroup of order prime to$\ell$and$s?$with reduced coefficient size. We still have$log_g s = log_g s'$mod$\ell$. We use a tower representation of$GF(p^n)$with subfields for our purpose. We reduce the norm of$s \in \mathbb{F}_{p4}$from$O(p^{11/2})$to$O(p^{7/2}), s \in GF(p^3)$from$O(p^6)$to$O(p^2)$and$s \in \mathbb{F}_{p2}$from$O(p^4)$to$O(p)$. This does not change the asymptotic complexity of this last step but this improves a lot its running time for small$n$. This talk will focus on the last step of the number field sive algorithm used to compute discrete logarithms in finite fields. We consider here non-prime finite fields of very small extension degree:$1 \le n \le 6$. These cases are interesting in pairing-based cryptography: the pairing output is an element in such a finite field. The discrete logarithm in that finite field must be hard enough to prevent from attacks in a given time (e.g.$10$... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Distributions of Frobenius of elliptic curves #3 Jones, Nathan | H Single angle Research talks;Number Theory In the 1970s, S. Lang and H. Trotter developed a probabilistic model which led them to their conjectures on distributional aspects of Frobenius in$GL_2$-extensions. These conjectures, which are still open, have been a significant source of stimulation for modern research in arithmetic geometry. The present lectures will provide a detailed exposition of the Lang-Trotter conjectures, as well as a partial survey of some known results. Various questions in number theory may be viewed in probabilistic terms. For instance, consider the prime number theorem, which states that, as$x\rightarrow \infty$, one has$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x \right \}\sim \frac{x}{\log x}$This may be seen as saying that the heuristic “probability” that a number$p$is prime is about$1/\log p$. This viewpoint immediately predicts the correct order of magnitude for the twin prime conjecture. Indeed, if$p$and$p+2$are seen as two randomly chosen numbers of size around$t$, then the probability that they are both prime should be about$1/(\log t)^2$, which predicts that$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x : p+2\, is\, also\, prime \right \}\asymp \int_{2}^{x}\frac{1}{(\log t)^2}dt \sim \frac{x}{\log x}$In this naive heuristic, the events “$p$is prime” and “$p+2$is prime” have been treated as independent, which they are not (for instance their reductions modulo 2 are certainly not independent). Using more careful probabilistic reasoning, one can correct this and arrive at the precise conjecture$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x : p+2\, is\, also\, prime \right \} \sim C_{twin}\frac{x}{(\log x)^2}$, where$C_{twin}$is the constant of Hardy-Littlewood. In these lectures, we will use probabilistic considerations to study statistics of data attached to elliptic curves. Specifically, fix an elliptic curve$E$over$\mathbb{Q}$of conductor$N_E$. For a prime$p$of good reduction, theFrobenius trace$a_p(E)$and Weil$p$-root$\pi _p(E)\in \mathbb{C}$satisfy the relations$\#E(\mathbb{F}_p)=p+1-a_p(E)$,$X^2-a_p(E)X+p=(X-\pi _p(E))(X-\overline{ \pi _p(E)})$. Because of their connection via the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture to ranks of elliptic curves (amongother reasons), there is general interest in understanding the statistical variation of the numbers$a_p(E)$and$\pi_p(E)$, as$p$varies over primes of good reduction for E. In their 1976 monograph, Lang and Trotter considered the following two fundamental counting functions:$\pi_{E,r}(x) :=\#\left \{ primes\: p\leq x:p \nmid N_E, a_p(E)=r \right \}\pi_{E,K}(x) :=\#\left \{ primes\: p\leq x:p \nmid N_E, \mathbb{Q}(\pi_p(E))=K \right \}$, where$ r \in \mathbb{Z}$is a fixed integer,$K$is a fixed imaginary quadratic field. We will discuss their probabilistic model, which incorporates both the Chebotarev theorem for the division fields of$E$and the Sato-Tatedistribution, leading to the precise (conjectural) asymptotic formulas (1)$\pi_{E,r}(x)\sim C_{E,r}\frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}\pi_{E,K}(x)\sim C_{E,K}\frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}$, with explicit constants$C_{E,r}\geq 0$and$C_{E,K} > 0$. We will also discuss heuristics leading to the conjectureof Koblitz on the primality of$\#E( \mathbb{F}_p)$, and of Jones, which combines these with the model of Lang-Trotter for$\pi_{E,r}(x)$in order to count amicable pairs and aliquot cycles for elliptic curves as introduced by Silvermanand Stange. The above-mentioned conjectures are all open, although (in addition to the bounds mentioned in the previous section) there are various average results which give evidence of their validity. For instance, let$R\geq 1$and$S\geq 1$be an arbitrary positive length andwidth, respectively, and define$\mathcal{F}(R,S):= \{ E_{r,s}:(r,s)\in \mathbb{Z}^2,-16(4r^3+27s^2)\neq 0, \left | r \right |\leq R\: $and$\left | s \right | \leq S \}$, where$E_{r,s}$denotes the curve with equation$y^2=x^3+rx=s$. The work of Fouvry and Murty$(r=0)$, and of David and Pappalardi$(r\neq 0)$, shows that, provided min$\left \{ R(x), S(x) \right \}\geq x^{1+\varepsilon }$, one has (2)$\frac{1}{\left |\mathcal{F}(R(x),S(x)) \right |} \sum_{E\in \mathcal{F}(R(x),S(x))} \pi_{E,r}(x) \sim C_r \frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}$where$C_r$is a constant. We will survey this and other theorems on average, and then discuss the nature of the associated constants$C_{E,r},C_{E,K}$etc. We will discuss the statistical variation of these constants as$E$varies over all elliptic curves over$\mathbb{Q}$, and use this to confirm the consistency of (2) with (1), on the level of the constants Keywords : Galois representation - elliptic curve - trace of Frobenius - Chebotarev density theorem - Sato-Tate conjecture - Lang-Trotter conjecture In the 1970s, S. Lang and H. Trotter developed a probabilistic model which led them to their conjectures on distributional aspects of Frobenius in$GL_2$-extensions. These conjectures, which are still open, have been a significant source of stimulation for modern research in arithmetic geometry. The present lectures will provide a detailed exposition of the Lang-Trotter conjectures, as well as a partial survey of some known results. Various ... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Introduction to Sato-Tate distributions Sutherland, Andrew | H Single angle Research talks;Algebra;Number Theory Overview of the generalized Sato-Tate conjecture with lots of explicit examples. Preliminary discussion of L-polynomial distributions, Sato-Tate groups, and moment sequences. Presentation of the main results in genus 2. Sato-Tate - Abelian surfaces - Abelian threefolds - hyperelliptic curves Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Moment sequences of Sato-Tate groups Sutherland, Andrew | H Single angle Research talks;Algebra;Number Theory Moment sequences as a tool for identifying and classifying Sato-Tate distributions. Computing moment sequences of Sato-Tate groups, Weyl integration formulas, comparing moment statistics, distinguishing exceptional distributions with additional statistics. Sato-Tate - Abelian surfaces - Abelian threefolds - hyperelliptic curves Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Computing Sato-Tate statistics Sutherland, Andrew | H Single angle Research talks;Algebra;Number Theory Survey of methods for computing zeta functions of low genus curves, including generic group algorithms, p-adic cohomology, CRT-based methods (Schoof-Pila), and recent average polynomial-time algorithms. Sato-Tate - Abelian surfaces - Abelian threefolds - hyperelliptic curves Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Group structures of elliptic curves #1 Shparlinski, Igor | H Single angle Research talks;Algebra;Number Theory We give a survey of results which address the following generic question: How does a random elliptic curve over a finite field look like. This question has a rich variety of specfic interpretations, which depend on how one defines a random curve and what properties which are of interest. The former may include randomisation of the coefficients of the Weierstrass equation or the prime power defining the field, or both. The latter may include studying the group structure, arithmetic structure of the number of points (primality, smoothness, etc.) and certain divisibility conditions. These questions are related to such celebrated problems as Lang-Trotter and Sato-Tate conjectures. More recently the interest to these questions was re-fueled by the needs of pairing based cryptography. In a series of talks we will describe the state of art in some of these directions, demonstrate the richness of underlying mathematics and pose some open questions. CIRM - Chaire Jean-Morlet 2014 - Aix-Marseille Université We give a survey of results which address the following generic question: How does a random elliptic curve over a finite field look like. This question has a rich variety of specfic interpretations, which depend on how one defines a random curve and what properties which are of interest. The former may include randomisation of the coefficients of the Weierstrass equation or the prime power defining the field, or both. The latter may include ... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Group structures of elliptic curves #2 Shparlinski, Igor | H Single angle Research talks;Algebra;Number Theory We give a survey of results which address the following generic question: How does a random elliptic curve over a finite field look like. This question has a rich variety of specfic interpretations, which depend on how one defines a random curve and what properties which are of interest. The former may include randomisation of the coefficients of the Weierstrass equation or the prime power defining the field, or both. The latter may include studying the group structure, arithmetic structure of the number of points (primality, smoothness, etc.) and certain divisibility conditions. These questions are related to such celebrated problems as Lang-Trotter and Sato-Tate conjectures. More recently the interest to these questions was re-fueled by the needs of pairing based cryptography. In a series of talks we will describe the state of art in some of these directions, demonstrate the richness of underlying mathematics and pose some open questions. CIRM - Chaire Jean-Morlet 2014 - Aix-Marseille Université We give a survey of results which address the following generic question: How does a random elliptic curve over a finite field look like. This question has a rich variety of specfic interpretations, which depend on how one defines a random curve and what properties which are of interest. The former may include randomisation of the coefficients of the Weierstrass equation or the prime power defining the field, or both. The latter may include ... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Group structures of elliptic curves #3 Shparlinski, Igor | H Single angle Research talks;Algebra;Number Theory We give a survey of results which address the following generic question: How does a random elliptic curve over a finite field look like. This question has a rich variety of specfic interpretations, which depend on how one defines a random curve and what properties which are of interest. The former may include randomisation of the coefficients of the Weierstrass equation or the prime power defining the field, or both. The latter may include studying the group structure, arithmetic structure of the number of points (primality, smoothness, etc.) and certain divisibility conditions. These questions are related to such celebrated problems as Lang-Trotter and Sato-Tate conjectures. More recently the interest to these questions was re-fueled by the needs of pairing based cryptography. In a series of talks we will describe the state of art in some of these directions, demonstrate the richness of underlying mathematics and pose some open questions. CIRM - Chaire Jean-Morlet 2014 - Aix-Marseille Université We give a survey of results which address the following generic question: How does a random elliptic curve over a finite field look like. This question has a rich variety of specfic interpretations, which depend on how one defines a random curve and what properties which are of interest. The former may include randomisation of the coefficients of the Weierstrass equation or the prime power defining the field, or both. The latter may include ... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Distributions of Frobenius of elliptic curves #4 Jones, Nathan | H Single angle Research talks;Number Theory In the 1970s, S. Lang and H. Trotter developed a probabilistic model which led them to their conjectures on distributional aspects of Frobenius in$GL_2$-extensions. These conjectures, which are still open, have been a significant source of stimulation for modern research in arithmetic geometry. The present lectures will provide a detailed exposition of the Lang-Trotter conjectures, as well as a partial survey of some known results. Various questions in number theory may be viewed in probabilistic terms. For instance, consider the prime number theorem, which states that, as$x\rightarrow \infty$, one has$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x \right \}\sim \frac{x}{\log x}$This may be seen as saying that the heuristic "probability" that a number$p$is prime is about$1/\log p$. This viewpoint immediately predicts the correct order of magnitude for the twin prime conjecture. Indeed, if$p$and$p+2$are seen as two randomly chosen numbers of size around$t$, then the probability that they are both prime should be about$1/(\log t)^2$, which predicts that$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x : p+2\, is\, also\, prime \right \}\asymp \int_{2}^{x}\frac{1}{(\log t)^2}dt \sim \frac{x}{\log x}$In this naive heuristic, the events "$p$is prime" and "$p+2$is prime" have been treated as independent, which they are not (for instance their reductions modulo 2 are certainly not independent). Using more careful probabilistic reasoning, one can correct this and arrive at the precise conjecture$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x : p+2\, is\, also\, prime \right \} \sim C_{twin}\frac{x}{(\log x)^2}$, where$C_{twin}$is the constant of Hardy-Littlewood. In these lectures, we will use probabilistic considerations to study statistics of data attached to elliptic curves. Specifically, fix an elliptic curve$E$over$\mathbb{Q}$of conductor$N_E$. For a prime$p$of good reduction, theFrobenius trace$a_p(E)$and Weil$p$-root$\pi _p(E)\in \mathbb{C}$satisfy the relations$\#E(\mathbb{F}_p)=p+1-a_p(E)$,$X^2-a_p(E)X+p=(X-\pi _p(E))(X-\overline{ \pi _p(E)})$. Because of their connection via the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture to ranks of elliptic curves (amongother reasons), there is general interest in understanding the statistical variation of the numbers$a_p(E)$and$\pi_p(E)$, as$p$varies over primes of good reduction for E. In their 1976 monograph, Lang and Trotter considered the following two fundamental counting functions:$\pi_{E,r}(x) :=\#\left \{ primes\: p\leq x:p \nmid N_E, a_p(E)=r \right \}\pi_{E,K}(x) :=\#\left \{ primes\: p\leq x:p \nmid N_E, \mathbb{Q}(\pi_p(E))=K \right \}$, where$ r \in \mathbb{Z}$is a fixed integer,$K$is a fixed imaginary quadratic field. We will discuss their probabilistic model, which incorporates both the Chebotarev theorem for the division fields of$E$and the Sato-Tatedistribution, leading to the precise (conjectural) asymptotic formulas (1)$\pi_{E,r}(x)\sim C_{E,r}\frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}\pi_{E,K}(x)\sim C_{E,K}\frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}$, with explicit constants$C_{E,r}\geq 0$and$C_{E,K} > 0$. We will also discuss heuristics leading to the conjectureof Koblitz on the primality of$\#E( \mathbb{F}_p)$, and of Jones, which combines these with the model of Lang-Trotter for$\pi_{E,r}(x)$in order to count amicable pairs and aliquot cycles for elliptic curves as introduced by Silvermanand Stange. The above-mentioned conjectures are all open, although (in addition to the bounds mentioned in the previous section) there are various average results which give evidence of their validity. For instance, let$R\geq 1$and$S\geq 1$be an arbitrary positive length andwidth, respectively, and define$\mathcal{F}(R,S):= \{ E_{r,s}:(r,s)\in \mathbb{Z}^2,-16(4r^3+27s^2)\neq 0, \left | r \right |\leq R\: $and$\left | s \right | \leq S \}$, where$E_{r,s}$denotes the curve with equation$y^2=x^3+rx=s$. The work of Fouvry and Murty$(r=0)$, and of David and Pappalardi$(r\neq 0)$, shows that, provided min$\left \{ R(x), S(x) \right \}\geq x^{1+\varepsilon }$, one has (2)$\frac{1}{\left |\mathcal{F}(R(x),S(x)) \right |} \sum_{E\in \mathcal{F}(R(x),S(x))} \pi_{E,r}(x) \sim C_r \frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}$where$C_r$is a constant. We will survey this and other theorems on average, and then discuss the nature of the associated constants$C_{E,r},C_{E,K}$etc. We will discuss the statistical variation of these constants as$E$varies over all elliptic curves over$\mathbb{Q}$, and use this to confirm the consistency of (2) with (1), on the level of the constants Keywords : Galois representation - elliptic curve - trace of Frobenius - Chebotarev density theorem - Sato-Tate conjecture - Lang-Trotter conjecture In the 1970s, S. Lang and H. Trotter developed a probabilistic model which led them to their conjectures on distributional aspects of Frobenius in$GL_2$-extensions. These conjectures, which are still open, have been a significant source of stimulation for modern research in arithmetic geometry. The present lectures will provide a detailed exposition of the Lang-Trotter conjectures, as well as a partial survey of some known results. Various ... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Distributions of Frobenius of elliptic curves #6 Jones, Nathan | H Single angle Research talks;Number Theory In the 1970s, S. Lang and H. Trotter developed a probabilistic model which led them to their conjectures on distributional aspects of Frobenius in$GL_2$-extensions. These conjectures, which are still open, have been a significant source of stimulation for modern research in arithmetic geometry. The present lectures will provide a detailed exposition of the Lang-Trotter conjectures, as well as a partial survey of some known results. Various questions in number theory may be viewed in probabilistic terms. For instance, consider the prime number theorem, which states that, as$x\rightarrow \infty$, one has$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x \right \}\sim \frac{x}{\log x}$This may be seen as saying that the heuristic "probability" that a number$p$is prime is about$1/\log p$. This viewpoint immediately predicts the correct order of magnitude for the twin prime conjecture. Indeed, if$p$and$p+2$are seen as two randomly chosen numbers of size around$t$, then the probability that they are both prime should be about$1/(\log t)^2$, which predicts that$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x : p+2\, is\, also\, prime \right \}\asymp \int_{2}^{x}\frac{1}{(\log t)^2}dt \sim \frac{x}{\log x}$In this naive heuristic, the events "$p$is prime" and "$p+2$is prime" have been treated as independent, which they are not (for instance their reductions modulo 2 are certainly not independent). Using more careful probabilistic reasoning, one can correct this and arrive at the precise conjecture$\#\left \{ primes\, p\leq x : p+2\, is\, also\, prime \right \} \sim C_{twin}\frac{x}{(\log x)^2}$, where$C_{twin}$is the constant of Hardy-Littlewood. In these lectures, we will use probabilistic considerations to study statistics of data attached to elliptic curves. Specifically, fix an elliptic curve$E$over$\mathbb{Q}$of conductor$N_E$. For a prime$p$of good reduction, theFrobenius trace$a_p(E)$and Weil$p$-root$\pi _p(E)\in \mathbb{C}$satisfy the relations$\#E(\mathbb{F}_p)=p+1-a_p(E)$,$X^2-a_p(E)X+p=(X-\pi _p(E))(X-\overline{ \pi _p(E)})$. Because of their connection via the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture to ranks of elliptic curves (amongother reasons), there is general interest in understanding the statistical variation of the numbers$a_p(E)$and$\pi_p(E)$, as$p$varies over primes of good reduction for E. In their 1976 monograph, Lang and Trotter considered the following two fundamental counting functions:$\pi_{E,r}(x) :=\#\left \{ primes\: p\leq x:p \nmid N_E, a_p(E)=r \right \}\pi_{E,K}(x) :=\#\left \{ primes\: p\leq x:p \nmid N_E, \mathbb{Q}(\pi_p(E))=K \right \}$, where$ r \in \mathbb{Z}$is a fixed integer,$K$is a fixed imaginary quadratic field. We will discuss their probabilistic model, which incorporates both the Chebotarev theorem for the division fields of$E$and the Sato-Tatedistribution, leading to the precise (conjectural) asymptotic formulas (1)$\pi_{E,r}(x)\sim C_{E,r}\frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}\pi_{E,K}(x)\sim C_{E,K}\frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}$, with explicit constants$C_{E,r}\geq 0$and$C_{E,K} > 0$. We will also discuss heuristics leading to the conjectureof Koblitz on the primality of$\#E( \mathbb{F}_p)$, and of Jones, which combines these with the model of Lang-Trotter for$\pi_{E,r}(x)$in order to count amicable pairs and aliquot cycles for elliptic curves as introduced by Silvermanand Stange. The above-mentioned conjectures are all open, although (in addition to the bounds mentioned in the previous section) there are various average results which give evidence of their validity. For instance, let$R\geq 1$and$S\geq 1$be an arbitrary positive length andwidth, respectively, and define$\mathcal{F}(R,S):= \{ E_{r,s}:(r,s)\in \mathbb{Z}^2,-16(4r^3+27s^2)\neq 0, \left | r \right |\leq R\: $and$\left | s \right | \leq S \}$, where$E_{r,s}$denotes the curve with equation$y^2=x^3+rx=s$. The work of Fouvry and Murty$(r=0)$, and of David and Pappalardi$(r\neq 0)$, shows that, provided min$\left \{ R(x), S(x) \right \}\geq x^{1+\varepsilon }$, one has (2)$\frac{1}{\left |\mathcal{F}(R(x),S(x)) \right |} \sum_{E\in \mathcal{F}(R(x),S(x))} \pi_{E,r}(x) \sim C_r \frac{\sqrt{x}}{\log x}$where$C_r$is a constant. We will survey this and other theorems on average, and then discuss the nature of the associated constants$C_{E,r},C_{E,K}$etc. We will discuss the statistical variation of these constants as$E$varies over all elliptic curves over$\mathbb{Q}$, and use this to confirm the consistency of (2) with (1), on the level of the constants Keywords : Galois representation - elliptic curve - trace of Frobenius - Chebotarev density theorem - Sato-Tate conjecture - Lang-Trotter conjecture In the 1970s, S. Lang and H. Trotter developed a probabilistic model which led them to their conjectures on distributional aspects of Frobenius in$GL_2$-extensions. These conjectures, which are still open, have been a significant source of stimulation for modern research in arithmetic geometry. The present lectures will provide a detailed exposition of the Lang-Trotter conjectures, as well as a partial survey of some known results. Various ... Déposez votre fichier ici pour le déplacer vers cet enregistrement. ## Distributions of Frobenius of elliptic curves #1 David, Chantal | H Single angle Research talks;Number Theory In all the following, let an elliptic curve$E$defined over$\mathbb{Q}$without complex multiplication. For every prime$\ell$, let$E[\ell]= E[\ell](\overline{\mathbb{Q}})$be the group of$\ell$-torsion points of$E$, and let$K_\ell$be the field extension obtained from$\mathbb{Q}$by adding the coordinates of the$\ell$-torsion points of$E $. This is a Galois extension of$\mathbb{Q}$, andGal$(K_\ell/\mathbb{Q})\subseteq GL_2(\mathbb{Z}/\ell\mathbb{Z})$. Using the Chebotarev density theorem for the extensions$K_\ell/\mathbb{Q}$associated to a given curve$E$, we can study various sequences associated to the reductions of a global curve$E/(\mathbb{Q}$, as the sequences$\left \{\#E(\mathbb{F}_p)=p+1-a_p(E)\right \}_{p\: primes}, or \left \{ a_p(E)=r \right \}_{p\: primes}$for some fixed value$r\in \mathbb{Z}$. For example, if$\pi_{E,r}(x)= \#\left \{ p\leq x : a_p(E)=r \right \}$, then it was shown by Serre and K. Murty, R. Murty and Saradha that under the GRH,$\pi_{E,r}(x)\ll x^{4/5} log^{-1/5}x$, for all$r\in \mathbb{Z}$, and$ \pi_{E,0}(x)\ll x^{3/4}$. There are also some weaker bounds without the GRH. Some other sequences may also be treated by apply-ing the Chebotarev density theorem to other extensions of$\mathbb{Q} $as the ones coming from the “mixed Galois representations” associated to$E[\ell]$and a given quadratic field$K$which can be used to get upper bounds onthe number of primes$p$such that End$(E/\mathbb{F}_p)\bigotimes \mathbb{Q}$is isomorphic to a given quadratic imaginary field$K$. We will also explain how the densities obtained from the Cheboratev density theorem can be used togetherwith sieve techniques. For a first application, we consider a conjecture of Koblitz which predicts that$\pi_{E}^{twin}(x):=\#\left \{ p\leq x : p+1-a_p(E)\, is\, prime \right \}\sim C_{E}^{twin}\frac{x}{log^2x}$This is analogue to the classical twin prime conjecture, and the constant$C_{E}^{twin}$can be explicitly writtenas an Euler product like the twin prime constant. We explain how classical sieve techniques can be usedto show that under the GRH, there are at least 2.778$C_{E}^{twin}x/log^2x$primes$p$such that$p+1-a_p(E)^2$has at most 8 prime factors, counted with multiplicity. We also explain some possible generalisation of Koblitz conjectures which could be treated by similar techniques given some explicitversions (i.e. with explicit error terms) of density theorems existing in the literature. Other examples of sieving using the Chebotarev density theorem in the context of elliptic curves are thegeneralisations of Hooley’s proof of the Artin’s conjecture on primitive roots (again under the GRH).Using a similar techniques, but replacing the cyclotomic fields by the$\ell$-division fields$K_\ell$of a given elliptic curve$E/\mathbb{Q}$, Serre showed that there is a positive proportion of primes$p$such that the group$E(\mathbb{F}_p)$is cyclic (when$E$does not have a rational 2-torsion point). This was generalised by Cojocaru and Duke, and is also related to counting square-free elements of the sequence$a_p(E)^2-4p$,,which still resists a proof with the same techniques (without assuming results stronger than the GRH). Finally, we also discuss some new distribution questions related to elliptic curves that are very similar to the questions that could be attacked with the Chebotarev density theorem, but are still completely open(for example, no non-trivial upper bounds exists). The first question was first considered by Silverman and Stange who defined an amicable pair of an elliptic curve$E/\mathbb{Q}$to be a pair of primes$(p,q)$such that$p+1-a_p(E)=q$, and$q+1-a_q(E)=p$. They predicted that the number of such pairs should be about$\sqrt{x}/log^2x$for elliptic curves without complex multiplication. A precise conjecture with an explicit asymptotic was made by Jones, who also provided numerical evidence for his conjecture. Among the few results existing in the literature for thisquestion is the work of Parks who gave an upper bound of the correct order of magnitude for the average number (averaging over all elliptic curves) of amicable pairs (and aliquot cycles which are cycles of length$L$). But a non-trivial upper bound for a single elliptic curve is still not known. Another completely open question is related to “champion primes”, which are primes$p$such that$\#E(\mathbb{F}_p)$is maximal, i.e.$a_p(E)=-[2\sqrt{p}]$. (This terminology was used for the first time by Hedetniemi, James andXue). In some work in progress with Wu, we make a conjecture and give some evidence for the number of champion primes associated to a given elliptic curve using the Sato-Tate conjecture (for verysmall intervals depending on$p$i.e. in a range where the conjecture is still open). Again, this question iscompletely open, and there are no known non-trivial upper bound. There is also no numerical evidence for this question, and it would be nice to have some, possibly for more general “champion primes”, for examplelooking at$a_p(E)$in a small interval of length$p^\varepsilon$around$-[2\sqrt{p}]$. In all the following, let an elliptic curve$E$defined over$\mathbb{Q}$without complex multiplication. For every prime$\ell$, let$E[\ell]= E[\ell](\overline{\mathbb{Q}})$be the group of$\ell$-torsion points of$E$, and let$K_\ell$be the field extension obtained from$\mathbb{Q}$by adding the coordinates of the$\ell$-torsion points of$E $. This is a Galois extension of$\mathbb{Q}$, andGal$(K_\ell/\mathbb{Q})\subseteq GL_2...

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